Narration (Direct to Indirect)

NARRATION

Narration :-यह दो प्रकार का होता है :-
(1) Direct speech
(2) Indirect speech
(1) Direct speech :-यह दो प्रकार का होता है :-
(a) Reporting verb
(b) Reported speech
Example:- He says to me,"I am going to jaipur." [-Reporting verb-] [-Reported specch-]

Direct से indirect speech में परिवर्तन के नियम :-
(1) यदि direct speech में object हो तो :-
say--tell
says--tells
said--told
(2) यदि direct speech में object ना हो तो कोई परिवर्तन नही होता अर्थात् :-
say--say
says--says
said--said
(3) inverted commas("--") को that में बदलते है |

First person I me my
second person you your you
Third person He his him
Third person she her him
Third person They Their Them

Note :- object second person के अनुसार बदलते हैं तथा third person में कोई परिवर्तन नही होता है |
Example :-
(a) Direct speech :- Kajal says to her,"You are an intelligent girl".
Indirect speech :- Kajal tell her that she is an intelligent girl.
(b) Direct :- Sita says to her,"I am taking tea".
Indirect :- Sita tells her that she is taking tea.
(c) Direct :- Aman says,"you can help me."
Indirect :- Aman says that I can help him.
NOTE :- (a) यदि Reporting verb Present या future tense में हो तो Reported speech के tense में कोई परिवर्तन नही होता है |
(b) यदि Reporting verb past tense में हो तो Reported Speech के tense में परिवर्तन होगा |
Example :- (a) Direct :- He says,"You are taking milk".
Indirect :- He says that I am taking milk.

(c) यदि Reporting verb past tense में हो तो tense table:-

No Direct speech Indirect speech
(1) V1+s/es या do/does+v1 V2/did+V1
(2) Is/am/are+v1+ing was/were+V1+ing
(3) Has/have+V3 Had+V3
(4) Has/have+been+V1+ing Has/have+been+V1+ing
(5) V2/did+V1 Had+v3
(6) Was/were+v1+ing Has/have+been+V1+ing
(7) Can/may Could/might
(8) Will/shall Would/should

Examples :-
Direct :- Seema said to me,"you writes a book."
Indirect :- Seema told me that I wrote a book.
Direct :- She said to Gita,"i don't play cricket."
Indirect :- she told Gita that she didn't play cricket.
Direct :- Sita said,"I will go to Udaipur."
Indirect :- Sita said that she would go to udaipur.
NOTE:-(a) यदि वाक्य में सार्वभौमिक सत्य, ऐतिहासिक घटना, जन्मजात गुण, वैज्ञानिक तथा आद्यात्मिक तथ्य हो तो tense में परिवर्तन नही होगा |
Example:- Direct :- The teacher said,"birds fly in the sky."
Indirect :- The teacher said that birds fly in the sky.

दुरी सम्बन्धी परिवर्तन :-

This--that
Ago--before
so--thus
here--there
now--then
today--that day
yesterday--the previous day/last day
next day--following day
hence--thance
these--those
tonight--that night
tomorrow--next day
Examples:-
Direct :- Aman said to him,"Neha is going to Udaipur today."
Indirect :- Aman told him that Neha was going to Udaipur that day.
Direct :- Amit said,"well Raja, I can't come to home."
Indirect :- Amit told Raja that he couldn't come to home.

Interrogative sentences :-यह दो प्रकार के होते है :-
(1) helping verb से शुरू होने वाले
(2) wh. word से शुरू होने वाले
Rule:-
(a)say--ask
(b)says--asks
(c)said--asked
(d) ("--") को If में बदलते हैं |
(1) Helping verb शुरू होने वाले:- Examples :-
Direct :- Rajesh said to him,"Is Rajat taking tea".
Indirect :- Rajesh asked him if Rajat was taking tea.
Direct :- Rekha said,"Have you made food?"
Indirect :- Rekha said if I had made food.
(2) Wh. word से शुरू होने वाले:-
Examples:-
Direct :-Rohit said to him,"why are you playing football?"
Indirect :-Rohit asked him why he was playing football.
Direct :-Neha said to Radha,"what have you done your homework?"
Indirect :-Neha asked Radha what she had done her homework.

Imperative sentences:-यह चार प्रकार के होते है:-
(1) Verb की first form से शुरू होने वाले
(2) Do/Don't से शुरू होने वाले
(3) please/kindly से शुरू होने वाले
(4) Let से शरू होने वाले
(1) Verb की first form से शुरू होने वाले :-
Rule :-(a)said to को ordered,advised,requested,asked,wondered
(b)("--") को to में बदलते है|
Examples:-(a)Direct :- The doctor said to the patient,"take light food."
Indirect :- The doctor advised the patient to take light food.
(b)Direct :- The captain said to the soldiers,"Attack the enemy in the morning."
Indirect :- The captain ordered the soldiers to attack the enemy in the morning.
(2) Do/don't से शरू होने वाले :-
Rule:- (a) said to को forbade में बदलते है |
(b) ("--") को to में बदलते है |
(3) please/kindly से शुरू होने वाले :-
Rule:- (a) said to को requested में बदलते हैं |
(b) ("--") को to में बदलते हैं |
Examples:- Direct :-The stranger said to me,"Please tell me way to the hotel."
Indirect :-The stranger requested me to tell him way to the hotel.
Direct :-The student said to teacher,"Kindly check my homework."
Indirect :- The student requested the teacher to check his homework.
(4) Let से शुरू होने वाले :-
Rule:- (a)said/said to को requested में बदलते है |
(b)("--") को to में बदलते हैं |
Examples:-
Direct :- My friend said to me,"Let me go now."
Indirect :- My friend requested me to let him go then.

Optative sentences :- वे वाक्य जिनमे शुभकामनायें, श्राप व प्राथना की जाती है | यह दो प्रकार का होता है :-
(1) May से शुरू होने वाले
(2)good morning, good evening, good night, good bye आदि से शुरू होने वाले
(1) May से शुरू होने वाले :-
Rule :-
(a)said/said को wished,prayed,cursed में बदलते है |
(b)("--") को that में बदलते है |
Example :- Direct :- He said to me,"May you go to hell."
Indirect :- He cursed me that I might go to hell.
Direct :- He said,"may you return safe."
Indirect :- He prayed that I might return safe.
(2)-(a)Good morning तथा good evening आदि से शुरू होने वाले:-
Rule:- (a)said/said to को Wished में बदलते है |
(b)("--") को हटा देते है तथा connective नही लगाते है |
Example :- Direct :- He said,"Good morning sir."
Indirect :- He wished good morning sir.
(b)good night तथा good bye से शरू होने वाले

Rule:- (a)said/said to को bade में बदलते है |
(b)("--") को हटा देते है तथा connective नही लगाते है |
Example:- Direct :- He said,"Good bye."
Indirect :- He bade good bye.
NOTE :- जब Reported speech में धन्यवाद या बधाई दी हो तो:-
Example:-
Direct :-He said to me,"congratulation."
Indirect :-He congratulated me.
Direct :-He said,"thank you."
Indirect :-He thanked me.
Exclamatory Sentence :-विस्मयादिबोधक वे वाक्य होते हैं जिन वाक्यों में सुख,दुःख , व आश्चर्य आदि व्यक्त किया जाता हैं :-
(1)Rule :-
(a)said/said to:-
Hurrah ! -- Exclaimed with joy
Alas,oh ! -- Exclaimed with sorrow
what a, how ! -- Exclaimed with surprised में बदलते हैं |
(b)("--") को that में बदलते हैं |
Example :-
Direct :-He said ,"hurrah! we have won the match today."
Indirect :-He exclaimed with joy that they had won the match that day.
Direct :-He said,"Alas! I am ruined."
Indirect :-He exclaimed with sorrow that he was ruined.
(2) Bravo:- Rule:- (a)Said/said to को applouded में बदलते है |
(b)("--") को that+saying में बदलते हैं |
Example :-
Direct :- Amit said to me,"Bravo! you have done well."
Indirect :- Amit applouded me that saying I had done well.

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